Oxidation-Reduction

Systems Biology Approaches to Redox Metabolism in Stress and Disease States

SIGNIFICANCE: All cellular metabolic processes are tied to the cellular redox environment. Therefore, maintaining redox homeostasis is critically important for normal cell function. Indeed, redox stress contributes to the pathobiology of many human …

Nicotine Adenine Dinucleotides: The Redox Currency of the Cell

There has been tremendous and rapidly growing interest in understanding intermediary metabolism as a key aspect of both normal cellular function and as a participant in the molecular pathogenesis of many different complex diseases. This area of …

Pyridine Dinucleotides from Molecules to Man

SIGNIFICANCE: Pyridine dinucleotides, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), were discovered more than 100 years ago as necessary cofactors for fermentation in yeast extracts. Since that time, …

Hypoxia-Mediated Increases in L-2-Hydroxyglutarate Coordinate the Metabolic Response to Reductive Stress

Metabolic adaptation to hypoxia is critical for survival in metazoan species for which reason they have developed cellular mechanisms for mitigating its adverse consequences. Here, we have identified L-2-hydroxyglutarate (L2HG) as a universal …